CELLULAR THERAPY AND STROMAL VASCULAR FRACTION (SVF)
Personalized cellular therapy is the next era of medicine.
MODERN THERAPEUTIC MEDICINE
Innovative technology harnesses the power of your cells to pioneer treatment beyond surgical intervention and drug therapy. With cellular therapy, a patient’s own cells are used to create a cellular implant that can be used in an entirely natural way to repair and regenerate tissues or control pain and inflammation.
Enhance/retard cellular function
Cellular implants naturally execute complex cellular healing behaviors over a protracted period of time — something not available with drugs or surgery.
STROMAL VASCULAR FRACTION (SVF)
Cellular therapy is based on the harvest and concentration of a patient’s own cells to create a therapeutic cellular implant. A cellular implant composed of stromal and vascular cells (SVF) is used to repair and regenerate the stromal and vascular tissues of the body. These include the structural, connective and vascular tissues. The stromal and vascular tissues are the body’s foundation to support other cells and tissues with highly specialized functions.
ADIPOSE TISSUE PROCESSING AND STROMAL VASCULAR FRACTION
SVF cells are anchored in the adipose tissue matrix. They tightly adhere to the adipocytes, extracellular matrix (ECM) and the vascular walls.
Adipose tissue is the richest source of stromal vascular fraction cells per gram of tissue in the body. However, adipose tissue is more than 95% adipocyte and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) by volume, so the concentration of the stromal vascular fraction cells in adipose is very low (by volume). This is where tissue processing comes in.
In order to obtain a therapeutic dose of SVF cells, adipose tissue is harvested using a minor procedure. After the tissue is harvested the stromal vascular fraction cells are separated from the adipose tissue matrix using a tissue dissociation process. The cells are then concentrated to form the therapeutic dose.
Harvested adipose tissue contains blood (CD45+ cells), which is not useful or functional for repair or regeneration of stromal or vascular tissues. For this reason the blood cells are separated from adipose-derived cells. The mature adipocytes are also not useful or functional for repair or regeneration of stromal or vascular tissues. They are also separated from the adipose-derived cells. This leaves the stromal and vascular nucleated cells derived from the adipose tissue sample.
STROMAL VASCULAR FRACTION CELLULAR COMPOSITION AND APPLICATIONS
Stromal and vascular cells making up the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) that are useful for tissue repair or regeneration can be further segmented by cell type, function and percentage of the stromal vascular fraction population.
Capacity to induce formation of blood supply (vasculature).
Ability to induce extra cellular matrix remodeling and anti-fibrotic and anti-apoptotic properties.
The anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties, as well as the ability to participate in regulation of the immune response.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
The cells of the blood include leukocyte cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells (nucleated cell types) as well as erythrocytes and platelets (non-nucleated cell types). These blood cells are not capable of repair or regeneration of stromal or vascular tissues. Stromal and vascular cells (SVF) are nucleated cells derived from stromal and vascular tissues present in the adipose tissue matrix. The SVF cells are capable of stromal and vascular tissue repair and regeneration.
STEM CELL FAQs
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into a limited number of related cell types and can replicate themselves a large number of times. As stem cells divide over and over again to produce new cells, they can change into a limited number of other related types of cells that the body needs — or replicate into more stem cells. This means that stem cells have the potential to replace cell and tissues that have been damaged or lost due to disease.
No. Only embryonic stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into any type of tissue. Adult stem cells have a much more limited capacity to differentiate. For example, adult stem cells from adipose tissue cannot become brain, heart or kidney tissue, but can become adipose, nerve, collagen or bone tissues.
Yes. There are stem cells in blood called hematopoietic stem cells, often called HSCs. These cells are only capable of producing other blood cells (leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets) for repair or regeneration of blood and are not capable of repair or regeneration of stromal or vascular tissues in the body (vascular structures, connective tissue, bone, collagen and nerve).
Blood stem cells (HSCs) can only repair or replace blood tissues. They are not capable of repairing stromal or vascular tissues in the body. Blood stem cells can generate three types of blood cells: leukocytes (white blood cells), erythrocytes (red blood cells) and platelets.
PRP is platelet rich plasma. PRP is the plasma portion of the blood (the non-cellular portion) that contains nutrients, growth factors and dissolved gases. PRP may or may not contain a number of nucleated leukocyte cells from the blood. PRP is not a cellular regenerative therapy.
Bone marrow contains mostly hematopoietic cells (blood cells, CD45+), which are not useful for repairing stromal or vascular tissues. A very small proportion (<.1%) of the cells in bone marrow are mesenchymal stem cells, which can be used for tissue repair or regeneration. Because of the small quantity, bone marrow stem cells are typically cultured to expand their numbers to support a regenerative therapeutic treatment.
Pregnant women carry stem cells in amniotic fluids and tissues. These tissues are harvested and processed (including dehydration and sterilization), whereby any cells that are present die and are no longer viable. This means that vials of amniotic fluid/tissue do not carry viable stem cells for tissue regeneration.
Stem cells are one type of cell that can be used for cellular therapy. Stem cells are typically only a very small portion of nucleated mature and progenitor cells available from a tissue harvest. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) contains all of the nucleated mature and progenitor cells derived from the stromal and vascular tissues, including the stem cells portion.
The vast majority (99%) of nucleated cells from a bone marrow harvest are hematopoietic cells (CD45+) that are only useful for blood-related therapies. There is a small percentage of regenerative cells called mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in bone marrow (CD45-/CD34+) — typically less than .1% of total nucleated cells. Because the total amount of bone marrow that can be harvested is limited, there are typically not enough MSCs in a harvest to construct a therapeutic dose. The low numbers of MSCs can be expanded to increase numbers using culturing methods.
The number of stem cells present in almost any tissue harvest is typically small. When tissue is harvested, there will be a great number of nucleated cells, however, only a very small percentage of these cells are actually stem cells. Thus, the harvested cells must be cultured (grown in favorable, controlled conditions) to expand the number of stem cells to develop a therapeutic dose. The culturing process can also be used to create specific cells for specific regenerative therapy. When stem cells are cultured in the presence of appropriate reagents, they can be differentiated into specific specialized cells like osteocytes for bone regeneration or chondrocytes for cartilage.
Yes. Fresh, uncultured stem cells are the most potent state of the stem cell. As stem cells are cultured, they lose characteristics as they divide and expand, which can make them less potent for cellular therapy.
Yes. Autologous stem cells are cells that come from your own body while allogeneic stem cells come from someone else. The body precisely tolerates its own autologous cells but has a very strong immune reaction to cells that are not its own. For cellular treatment, allogeneic stem cells must be cultured long enough so that they are immune-compromised, and patients typically take immune-suppression drugs to better tolerate them. Autologous stem cells are preferred for regenerative therapy because they are precisely tolerated in the body.
Allogeneic stem cells (cells from someone else’s body) are not as easily tolerated in the body, meaning that they may stimulate an immune response and require patients to take immunosuppressive drugs.
There are no regenerative allogeneic stem cell therapies approved by the FDA. Blood replacement therapy and bone marrow transplant therapy that are based on blood type matching and HLA matching between individuals are allogeneic treatments that are approved or exempt from regulatory oversite.
There are no autologous stem cell therapies that have been approved by the FDA.
No. Most advertised “stem cell therapy” is not true regenerative stem cell treatment. This is because they either completely or mostly lack viable stem cells. For example, PRP treatments have no stem cells. Bone marrow concentrate has many blood-derived cells but very few stem cells. Amniotic fluids have no viable stem cells after processing.
No. Today’s advertised stem cell therapies have not been FDA-approved and have not been proven in randomized controlled clinical efficacy studies.